*******  Today in Black History –  March 2, 2015  *******   

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1807 - "The importation of slaves into the United States or the

        territories thereof" after January 1, 1808 is banned by

        Congress. Although abolitionists will hail the ban, it will

        not significantly affect the U.S. supply of slaves.  Illegal

        importation will continue through Florida and Texas. The law

        also has no provision to restrict the internal slave trade,

        and the reproduction rate of American slaves is high enough

        to allow an active trade. Therefore the domestic slave trade

        continues to prosper after 1808.


1867 - Howard University is chartered by Congress in Washington, DC.

        Also founded or chartered are Talladega College in Talledega,

        Alabama, Morgan State College in Baltimore, Maryland, Johnson

        C. Smith College in Charlotte, North Carolina, and St.

        Augustine's College in Raleigh, North Carolina.


1867 - The first of a succession of Reconstruction acts is passed by

        Congress.  The acts divide the former Confederate states into

        five military districts under the command of army generals.


1867 - African Americans vote in municipal election in Alexandria,

        Virginia, for perhaps the first time in the South.  The

        election commissioners refuse to count the fourteen hundred

        votes and military officials suspend local elections pending

        clarification of the status of the freedmen.


1867 - Elections are ordered for constitutional conventions and

        freedmen are enfranchised.  Commanders in some states change

        the status of African Americans by military orders.  Major

        General E.R.S. Canby opens the jury box to African Americans.

        African Americans are named policemen in Mobile, Alabama.


1885 - George W. Williams, minister, lawyer and historian, is named

        minister to Haiti.  The appointment is vacated by the new



1896 - In the battle of Aduwa, Abyssinia (Ethiopia) defeats the

        troops of the invading Italians.


1919 - Claude A. Barnett establishes the Associated Negro Press (ANP),

        the first national news service for African American

        newspapers. The goal of the ANP is to provide national news

        releases to African American publishers. The ANP will operate

        for the next 48 years and have, at one time, 95% of all

        African American newspapers as subscribers. 


1921 - Harry Pace establishes Pace Phonograph Corporation to produce

        records on the Black Swan label.  It is the first African

        American owned and operated record company and will record

        blues, jazz, spirituals, and operatic arias.


1938 - Operatic baritone, Simon Estes is born in Centerville, Iowa.

        He will be noted for his leading roles in Wagnerian operas

        and will sing at the  opening of the 1972 Summer Olympic

        Games in Munich, Germany. He will enjoy the acclaim of

        audiences and critics around the globe. Since his debut

        with the Deutsche Oper Berlin in 1965, he will perform with

        major international opera companies including the

        Metropolitan Opera, New York; Lyric Opera, Chicago; San

        Francisco Opera; La Scala Milan; Deutsche Opera, Berlin;

        Royal Opera House, Covent Garden; The Washington Opera;

        L'Opéra de Paris; Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona; the

        States Operas of Hamburg, Munich, Vienna and Zurich and at

        the Bayreuth, Salzburg and Glyndebourne Festivals. A noted

        recitalist and orchestra soloist as well, he will sing with

        the world's leading orchestras.  His love and concern for

        youth is manifested in the four scholarship organizations

        that bear his name; The Simon Estes Scholarship Fund at the

        University of Iowa; The Simon and Westella H. Estes

        Scholarship Fund at Centerville Community College, Centerville,

        Iowa; The Simon Estes Iowa Arts Scholarship and The Simon Estes

        Educational Foundation, Inc. in Tulsa, Oklahoma. This latter

        Foundation being the most broad-based will spawn the formation

        of The Simon Estes International Foundation, Inc., Zurich,

        Switzerland in 1984 and The Simon Estes Foundation, Cape Town,

        South Africa in 1996. Restricted music scholarships are offered

        in his name at Centerville Community College, the University of

        Iowa and through the Simon Estes Iowa Arts Scholarship Fund.


1957 - Mark Dean is born in Jefferson City, Tennessee. He will

        receive a BSEE degree from the University of Tennessee in

        1979, a MSEE degree from Florida Atlantic University in

        1982, and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford

        University in 1992. He will become an engineer for the IBM

        Corporation. During his career with IBM, he will hold

        several engineering positions in the area of computer

        system hardware architecture and design. He will work on

        establishing the strategy, architecture, design and

        business plan for proposed video server offerings and

        studyd the technology and business opportunity for settop

        boxes. He will also  be chief engineer for the development

        of the IBM PC/AT, ISA systems bus, PS/2 Model 70 & 80, the

        Color Graphics Adapter and numerous other subsystems. He

        will become an IBM Fellow and Vice President of Systems in

        IBM Research. He will be responsible for the research and

        application of systems technologies spanning circuits to

        operating environments. Key technologies in his research

        team will include cellular systems structures (Blue Gene),

        digital visualization, DA tools, Linux optimizations for

        Pervasive, SMPs & Clusters, Settop Box integration, MXT,

        S/390 & PowerPC processors, super dense servers, formal

        verification methods and high speed low power circuits.

        His awards will include induction as a member of the

        National Academy of Engineering, the Black Engineer of the

        Year Award, the NSBE Distinguished Engineer award, the

        Black Engineer of the Year President's Award, induction

        into the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame in Akron, OH and

        recipient of the Ronald H. Brown American Innovators Award

        in Washington, DC. He will be appointed to IBM Fellow in

        1995, IBM's highest technical honor. Only 50 out of

        310,000 IBM employees have the level of IBM Fellow. He will

        also be a member of the IBM Academy of Technology, serving

        on the Technology Council Board. He will receive several

        academic and IBM awards, including thirteen Invention

        Achievement Awards and six Corporate Awards. He will also

        have more than 30 patents or patents pending.


1961 - 180 African American students and a white minister are arrested

        in Columbia, South Carolina after anti-segregation march.


1962 - Philadelphia 76er Wilt Chamberlain scores 100 points in an NBA

        game against the New York Knicks.  It is a feat Chamberlain

        will repeat but one which has not been equaled by another NBA

        player to date.


1963 - Suzette DeGaetano is born in Mays Landing, New Jersey. As

        Suzette Charles, she will represent New Jersey in the 1984

        Miss America competition. She will win the preliminary talent

        competition but will finish as first runner-up to Vanessa Lynn

        Williams. When Williams is asked to resign her crown after

        nude photographs of her came to light, Charles will be

        declared to be the second Miss America for 1984, making her

        the second African American Miss America after Williams.


1980 - Thomas "Hit Man" Hearns wins the vacant USBA Welterweight

        title. This is one of five weight classes in which he wins

        a boxing title, making him the first African American to win

        boxing titles in five different weight classes.


1986 - Sidney Barthelemy is elected mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana,

        succeeding Ernest Morial as the second African American mayor

        of the city.


1988 - J. Saunders Redding, author, joins the ancestors in Ithaca,

        New York at the age of 81.


1990 - Carole Gist, of Detroit, Michigan, is crowned Miss USA.  She

        becomes the first African American to win the title.


2003 - Hank Ballard, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame member, joins the

        ancestors after succumbing to throat cancer in Los Angeles,

        California.  He wrote "The Twist" and other hits.





The source for these facts are "Encyclopedia Britannica,

"InfoBeat," "I, Too, Sing America - The African American

Book of Days," "Before the Mayflower", "Black Firsts" and 

independent research by Rene’ A. Perry.




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